Contingency Planning arises from the fact that exposure to risk in business is unavoidable. In business, risk can be defined as a threat that might prevent the business or organization from hitting its objectives. The purpose of contingency planning is thus to create planned responses to events that might adversely impact an organization.
What happens if sales suddenly slump by 50%? What happens if a key team member leaves for a new position? What happens if your entire customer support team (who share the same room) fall ill at the same time?
All of the above questions are risks to the operations of an organization. If an organization doesn’t handle any of these situations well, then there might be an adverse impact on business operations, customer perception of the organization, and even the future profits of the business.
Developing contingency plans is part of a broader process around managing business risk, and comprises the following three components:
These three steps combined will form a business’s continuity plan. You can think of contingency planning as being proactively planning for disruption, whereas crisis management planning is a more reactive strategy.
As you can see contingency planning is important. Because of this, it is important for all organizations to create and maintain contingency plans as part of normal business operations.
The following 3 steps can be used to create a contingency plan:
We’ll now dig into each of these areas in some more detail.
Before we can develop our contingency plan we need to understand the potential risks being faced by the organization.
A simple process we can use to assess risks is as follows:
To find the important risks we first need to understand the critical functions within the organization. You can help yourself identify these functions by asking “what if?” questions. For example, what if a certain supplier went bankrupt? What if we lost all customer data? What if the entire sales team was ill for a week?
For each of these critical parts of the business, find the risks being faced. To help you identify the risks you may want to consider the following risk areas:
One of the traps of contingency planning is that you over plan, meaning that you try to plan for every eventuality. This is obviously wasteful as it’s extremely unlikely most events will occur, so what we want to do is create contingency plans for those events which will either impact the organization in a major way or are quite likely to occur.
We can do this by ranking our risks in terms of probability of occurrence and impact on the organization.
As you can see in the diagram above, we have two high priority risks to address in our contingency planning (1 and 3), one risk which is of medium priority (2), and two risks of low priority (4 and 5).
The exact process to rank your risks in this way is shown in detail in our Risk Management article.
At this stage we have a prioritized list of risks, that is, a list of things that might go wrong including how they might go wrong, and what impact that might have on the organization.
Now it’s time to create our contingency plans, detailing how we’re going to react if any of these things actually do go wrong. The most sensible way to start this work is to tackle the highest priority threats first. In our example above, this means that we would create a contingency plan for risks 1 and 3 before moving on to the lower priority risks.
There is no right or wrong way to create a contingency plan, but the plan should contain step-by-step instructions detailing what needs to happen and when to get the business back to normal operations.
Despite there being no right or wrong way to put together a contingency plan, you may find the following pointers useful:
Once you’ve created your plan you’ll need to get it approved and included in any standard operating procedures (SOPs) so as everyone understands when the plan should be triggered and their part in it.
It can be useful to test your plans. That is, to simulate the triggering of a contingency plan to perform a dry run through the steps detailed in the plan. This will help ensure that the plan is fit for purpose.
Just as with life, business doesn’t exist in a vacuum. The world around us is in constant change. Because of this, it’s important not to just set and forget your contingency plans. They will need to be updated regularly for a number of reasons, including:
There are two ways in which to approach keeping your contingency plans up to date.
The first is to create a schedule where you will update and reapprove your contingency plans. Effectively this is a regular cadence of meetings (perhaps the team will meet once per month) when you’ll discuss and update your contingency plans.
The second approach is to embed the process of updating contingency plans in all the other change processes of the organization. This means that if someone were to change a system then they’d need to update the contingency plan. It would mean that if someone wanted to bring a new product to market that they’d need up update the relevant contingency plans or create a new contingency plan.
Contingency planning is often low on the priority list for many organizations. Day to day operations consume everyone’s attention, and so it can be difficult to find the time for contingency planning.
However, just like introducing a new product line, contingency planning is an investment. When considering investing in contingency planning, don’t just think about the cost of your investment, remember to consider the potential costs to the organization should you choose not to invest in contingency planning.
Unfreeze, Change, Refreeze
Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model
The SIPOC Model
Satir Change Model
Scott and Jaffe’s Change Model
Six Change Approaches
ADKAR Model of Change