The Deming Cycle was proposed by W. Edwards Deming (see The Pioneers of Quality for more on Deming himself). It is a continuous improvement model made up of 4-steps which you repeat over and over, bringing incremental improvement each time, and thus large improvements over time. The Deming Cycle is often shown using the following simple diagram:
The 4-steps of the Deming Cycle are: Plan, Do, Check, Act. The Deming Cycle is also called the PDCA cycle for Plan, Do, Check, Act; or the PDSA cycle for Plan, Do, Study, Act. The 4-steps of the Deming Cycle are defined as follows:
The real power of the Deming Cycle is its simplicity. We make small improvements repeatedly, each time with increased knowledge of the system, and each time getting one step closer to the perfect state. Note that although the PDCA cycle is commonly referred to as The Deming Cycle, Deming himself always referred to the cycle as the “Shewhart Cycle”.
If you’re familiar with SCRUM and other forms of Agile, which have their roots in Lean Development, it may not have escaped your attention how similar SCRUM Sprint Ceremonies are to The Deming Cycle. This can be seen in the following diagram:
In the diagram you can see that:
I hope this article has given you a good understanding of The Deming Cycle, and given you some thoughts as to how you can apply it to your projects and programs. The power of the Deming Cycle lies in its simplicity. Every journey starts with a single step. By frequently making small improvements over time we can achieve massive improvements.
Unfreeze, Change, Refreeze
Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model
The SIPOC Model
Satir Change Model
Scott and Jaffe’s Change Model
Six Change Approaches
ADKAR Model of Change